Process of Execution of C Program

The C program follows the following steps in execution:

First C program (source code) is sent to the preprocessor. The preprocessor is responsible to convert preprocessor directives into their respective values. The preprocessor generates expanded source code. Expanded source code is sent to the compiler which compiles the code and converts it into assembly code. The assembly code is sent to assembler which assembles the code and converts it into object code. Now a simple.obj file is generated. The object code is sent to the linker which links it to the library such as header files. Then it is converted into executable code. A simple.exe file is generated. the executable code is sent to loader which loads it into memory and then it is executed. After execution, the output is sent to console.

SIMPLE C PROGRAM:

#include<stdio.h>                       //Preprocessor directive

int main()                                   
 {
     printf("Hello C programmer");

     return 0;
  }


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Facebook introduced a new programming language called Move

The company had to introduce a new programming language called Move to support its cryptocurrency ambitions. 



Move is specifically designed to facilitate blockchain transactions. Developers can use the new programming language to build apps that will work seamlessly with Libra cryptocurrency. The idea behind developing an independent language is to allow apps to move Libra coins from one account to another without being misplaced or duplicated. 

Ben Maurer, tech lead for the Libra-focused Facebook subsidiary, Calibra said, "One of the things that's powerful about Move is it's very expressive. Move can express things ranging from simple transactions like sending money to more complex transactions like how money is created and destroyed." 

The programming language is an open source project. Developers can start using the code to build and develop new services. The significant features of the programming language is that programs developed using it can never be copied. They can only be transferred among program storage locations. The security aspect of the language allows executing important parts of Libra Protocol in Move. This includes Libra coin, validator management, and transaction processing. 

In conversation with CoinDesk, Maurer said, "The reason why we built our own language is that we want to really focus on the flexibility of the blockchain over time. One of the key ways to do that is by having programmability inside of the blockchain. If you want to take advantage of new functionality or new techniques, you don’t have to wait for the entire network to upgrade. In existing blockchains, there are a lot of issues with writing code securely. The Move language is built with safety being a key principle of the design.”
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What exactly is Computer science engineering?

Computer science is the study of computers and computing concepts. It includes both hardware and software, as well as networking and the Internet.


Computer science means the study related to the universe of computers. Computer science course duration of minimum 3-4 years. 

You can do your's Computer science courses on the following topics as specialists:

  • Software Developer 
  • Software Test Engineer (STE)
  • Senior Software Engineer
  • Software Development Manager
  • Software Architect
  • Programmer Analyst
  • Systems Developer
  • Web Developer
  • Software Development Engineer, Test (SDET)
  • Application Support Analyst 
  • Computer Systems Analyst 
  • Database Administrator (DBA)
  • Systems Administrator 
  • Systems Engineer (IT) 
  • Systems Analyst 
  • Network Administrator, IT
  • Network Engineer, IT 
  • Business Analyst, IT 
  • Program Manager, IT 
  • Information Technology Specialist 

The most advanced burning topics in computer science are:

  • Artificial intelligence.
  • Cloud computing.
  • Data science.
  • Data mining.
  • Ethical hacking.
  • machine learning.
  • Digital image processing.
  • Internet of things (IoT).
  • Data warehouse.
  • Semantic web.
  • MANET.
  • Quantum computing.
You can also do some Projects and research in the above-given topics.


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C++ Program illustrates how to allocate dynamic memory

// This program illustrates how to allocate dynamic memory
// using a pointer variable and how to manipulate data into // that memory location. //***********************************************************


#include <iostream>                                                                   //Line1
using namespace std;                                                                  //Line 2
int main()                                                                                     //Line 3
{                                                                                                    //Line 4
int *p;                                                                                          //Line 5
int *q;                                                                                          //Line 6
p = new int;                                                                                 //Line 7
*p = 34;                                                                                        //Line 8
cout << "Line 9: p = " << p<< ", *p = " << *p << endl;        //Line 9
q = p;                                                                                            //Line 10
cout << "Line 11: q = " << q<< ", *q = " << *q << endl;       //Line 11
*q = 45;                                                                                        //Line 12
cout << "Line 13: p = " << p<< ", *p = " << *p << endl;      //Line 13
cout << "Line 14: q = " << q<< ", *q = " << *q << endl;      //Line 14
p = new int;                                                                                 //Line 15
*p = 18;                                                                                        //Line 16
cout << "Line 17: p = " << p<< ", *p = " << *p << endl;       //Line 17
cout << "Line 18: q = " << q<< ", *q = " << *q << endl;       //Line 18
delete q;                                                                                       //Line 19
q = NULL;                                                                                   //Line 20
q = new int;                                                                                  //Line 21
*q = 62;                                                                                         //Line 22
cout << "Line 23: p = " << p<< ", *p = " << *p << endl;        //Line 23
cout << "Line 24: q = " << q<< ", *q = " << *q << endl;        //Line 24
return 0;                                                                                        //Line 25
}                                                                                                      //Line 26




The statements in Lines 5 and 6 declare p and q to be pointer variables of type int. The statement in Line 7 allocates memory of type int and stores the address of the allocated memory into p.

The allocated memory (in this case, of type int), and p together with the arrow indicates that p points to the allocated memory. The statement in Line 8 stores 34 into the memory location to which p points. 

The statement in Line 9 outputs the value of p and *p. (Note that the values of p and q shown in the sample run are machines dependent. When you execute this program, you are likely to get different values of p and q.) The statement in Line 10 copies the value of p into q.

after the execution of the statement in Line 10, p and q both point to the same memory location. So any changes made into that memory location by q immediately change the value of *p. The statement in Line 11 outputs the value of q and *q. The statement in Line 12 stores 45 into the memory location to which q points.

The statements in Lines 13 and 14 output the values of p, *p, q, and *q. The statement in Line 15 allocates memory space of type int and stores the address of that memory into p.
The statement in Line 16 stores 18 into the memory location to which p points.

The statements in Lines 17 and 18 output the values of p, *p, q, and *q. The statement in Line 19 deallocates the memory space to which q points and the statement in Line 20 sets the value of q to NULL. After the execution of the statement in Line 20, q does not point to any memory location.

The statement in Line 21 allocates a memory space of type int and stores the address of that memory space into q. The statement in Line 22 stores 62 in the memory space to which q points.

The statements in Lines 23 and 24 output the values of p, *p, q, and *q. In the preceding program, omit statements in Lines 19 and 20, rerun the program, and note how the last output statements change.
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What is Data Structure?

Data structure is a particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can be used efficientlyGeneral data structure types include arrays, files, linked lists, stacks, queues, trees, graphs and so on.

Depending on the organization of the elements, data structures are classified into two types:

1) Linear data structures:

Elements are accessed in sequential order but it is not compulsory to store all elements sequentially. Examples: Linked Lists, Stacks and Queues.

2) Non – linear data structures: 

Elements of this data structure are stored/accessed in a non-linear order. Examples: Trees and graphs.
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What is Jython?

The Jython system (originally known as JPython) is an alternative implementation of the Python language, targeted for integration with the Java programming language.
 

Jython consists of Java classes that compile Python source code to Java byte code and then route the resulting byte code to the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Programmers still code Python statements in .py text files, as usual. Jython’s goal is to allow Python code to script Java applications, much as CPython allows Python to script C and C++ components. Its integration with Java is remarkably seamless. because python code is translated to Java byte code, it looks and feels like a true Java program at runtime. Jython scripts can serve as web applets and servlets, build Java-based GUIs, and so on. Moreover, Jython includes integration support that allows Python code to import and use Java classes as though they were coded in Python, and Java code to run Python code as an embedded language. Because Jython is slower and less robust than CPython, though, it is usually seen as a tool of interest primarily to Java developers looking for a scripting language to serve as a frontend to Java code.
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What is Blogger?

Blogger is a platform where you can make your own blog or Website to represent your ideas or talent or educate the world. In Blogger there is no need for coding to make a website. You just need your google account to login and create your blog according to your need.



You can also create your Blog with the help of WordpressTumblr.

With the help of Your blog or website, you can also make your revenue by placing ads on your blog or website.

Blogger is written in Python language. The blogs are hosted by Google and generally accessed from a subdomain of blogspot.com. Blogger automatically provides you a free domain for your blog.
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What are Domain Names & Hosting?

In order to put your site on the web, you will need a domain name and web hosting.

DOMAIN NAMES

Your domain name is your web address (e.g. google.com or goson.in). There are many websites
that allow you to register domain names. Usually, you will have to pay an annual fee to keep that
domain name. These sites usually have a form that allows you to check whether your preferred domain name is available, and because millions of domain names have already been registered, it might take you a while to find the one that is right for your site. A lot of sites that offer domain
name registration also offer web hosting.                                               


Web Hosting

So that other people can see your site, you will need to upload it to a web server. Web servers are special computers that are constantly connected to the Internet. They are specially set up to serve web pages when they are requested. With the exception of some very large sites, most websites live on web servers run by web hosting companies. This is usually far cheaper and more reliable than trying to run your own web servers.

Disk space refers to the total size of all of the files that make up your site (all of the HTML and CSS files, images and scripts).

Bandwidth is the amount of data the hosting company will send to your site's visitors. If you imagine 10 people looked at every page on your site, then it would be the equivalent to 10 times the amount of disk space you use.

Backups:  Check whether the hosting company performs backups on your site (and how often). Some only create backups so that they can restore your website in the event of a server breaking. Others allow access to backups (which can be helpful if you accidentally break the site when updating it).

Hosted Services:


There are a number of online services that allow you to point your domain name to their servers. Blogging platforms such as WordPress.com, Tumblr, and Posterous, or e-commerce platforms such as Big Cartel and Shopify provides the servers that your site is hosted on. 

Server-side languages and databases:


If you are using a content management system, it will likely use a server-side programming language and a database (such as PHP with a MySQL database, or ASP.Net with a SQL Server database). Be sure to check that your hosting company supports the technologies your software needs to run.
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What is the role of Algorithms?

An algorithm is a set of steps that defines how a task is performed. For example, there are algorithms for cooking (called recipes), for finding your way through a strange city (more commonly called directions), for operating washing machines (usually displayed on the inside of the washer’s lid or perhaps on the wall of a laundromat), for playing music (expressed in the form of sheet music), and for performing magic tricks. Before a machine such as a computer can perform a task, an algorithm for performing that task must be discovered and represented in a form that is compatible with the machine. A representation of an algorithm is called a program.



For the convenience of machines, programs are encoded in a manner compatible with the technology of the machine. The process of developing a program, encoding it in machine-compatible form, and inserting it into a machine is called programming. Programs and the algorithms they represent are collectively referred to as software, in contrast to the machinery itself, which is known as hardware.
The study of algorithms began as a subject in mathematics. Indeed, the search for algorithms was a significant activity of mathematicians long before the development of today’s computers. The goal was to find a single set of directions that described how all problems of a particular type could be solved. One of the best-known examples of this early research is the long division algorithm for finding the quotient of two multiple-digit numbers. Another example is the Euclidean algorithm, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid, for finding the greatest common divisor of two positive integers.

Identifying the limitations of algorithmic capabilities solidified as a subject in mathematics in the 1930s with the publication of Kurt Gödel’s incompleteness theorem. This theorem essentially states that in any mathematical theory encompassing our traditional arithmetic system, there are statements whose truth or falseness cannot be established by algorithmic means. In short, any complete study of our arithmetic system lies beyond the capabilities of algorithmic activities.

For Example: 

The Euclidean algorithm for finding the greatest common divisor of two positive integers:

Description: This algorithm assumes that its input consists of two positive integers and proceeds to compute the greatest common divisor of these two values. 

Procedure: 
Step 1. Assign M and N the value of the larger and smaller of the two input values, respectively. 
Step 2. Divide M by N, and call the remainder R. 
Step 3. If R is not 0, then assign M the value of N, assign N the value of R, and return to step 2; otherwise, the greatest common divisor is the value currently assigned to N.
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What is a Script?

A script is a series of instructions that a computer can follow to achieve a goal.



Scripts are made up of instructions a computer can follow step-by-step.
A browser may use different parts of script depending on how the user interacts with the web page. Scripts can run different sections of code in response to the situation around them.

For Example:

You create Recipies  By following the instructions in a recipe, one-by-one in the order set out, cooks can create a dish they have never made before. Some scripts are simple and only deal with one individual scenario, like a simple recipe for a basic dish. Other scripts can perform many tasks, like a recipe for a complicated three-course meal. Another similarity is that if you are new to cooking or programming, there is a lot of new terminology to learn.

WRITING OF SCRIPT:


To write a script, you need to first state your goal and then list the tasks that need to be completed in order to achieve it. Humans can achieve complex goals without thinking about them too much, for example, you might be able to drive a car, cook breakfast, or send an email without a set of detailed instructions. But the first time we do these things they can seem daunting. Therefore, when learning a new skill, we often break it down into smaller tasks and learn one of these at a time. With experience, these individual tasks grow familiar and seem simpler.

Start with the big picture of what you want to achieve, and break that down into smaller steps:

1: DEFINE THE GOAL

First, you need to define the task you want to achieve. You can think of this as a puzzle for the computer to solve.

2: DESIGN THE SCRIPT 

To design a script you split the goal out into a series of tasks that are going to be involved in solving this puzzle. This can be represented using a flowchart. You can then write down individual steps that the computer needs to perform in order to complete each individual task (and any information it needs to perform the task), rather like writing a recipe that it can follow. 

3: CODE EACH STEP 

Each of the steps needs to be written in a programming language that the computer understands.


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What is a Program?


A computer isn’t smart. Believe it or not, on your worst days, you are still light-years ahead of your computer in intelligence. You can think, and you can tell a computer what to do. Here is where the computer shines: It will obey your instructions. Your computer will sit for days processing the data you supply, without getting bored or wanting overtime pay. The computer can’t decide what to do on its own. Computers can’t think for themselves, so programmers (people who tell computers what to do) must give computers extremely detailed instructions. Without instructions, a computer is useless; with incorrect instructions, a computer will not successfully execute your desired task. A computer can no more process your payroll without detailed instructions than an automobile can start by itself and drive around the block independently. 

The collection of detailed expressions that you supply when you want your computer to perform a specific task is known as a program.
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